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Nutritional Department

Nutrition Department


Nutrition is an essential part of life. Nutrition helps us for our physical as well as mental development. Nutrition is the study of nutrients in food, how the body uses them, and the relationship between diet, health, and disease. Food is essential—it provides vital nutrients for survival, help the body function normally and stay healthy. Good nutrition is an important part of leading a healthy lifestyle. Balanced Diet along with physical activity can help you to reach and maintain a healthy weight. Nutrients provide nourishment. Proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals, fibre, and water are all nutrients. If people do not balance the nutrients in their diet, risk of developing certain health conditions increases.


Macronutrients: Protein, Carbohydrates and Fat

Proteins: Proteins consist of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins which are needed for growth, development, repair and maintenance of body tissues. Protein provides structure to muscle and bone, they help to repair tissues when damaged and help immune cells fight inflammation and infection.

Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are divided into Simple & Complex Sugar.

Sugars are simple carbs while fibre & starch are complex sugar.

The body quickly breaks down and absorbs sugars and processed starch. They can provide rapid energy, but they do not leave a person feeling full. They can also cause a spike in blood sugar levels too. Frequent sugar spikes increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and its complications.

Fibre and unprocessed starch are complex carbs. It takes the body some time to break down and absorb complex carbs, so no sugar spikes. They help to reduce the absorption of glucose & cholesterol from the intestine & also help to relief constipation. After eating fibre, a person will feel full for longer. Fibre may also reduce the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colorectal cancer. Complex carbs are a more healthful choice than simple sugars and refined carbs.

Fat: Fats are mainly divided into Saturated & unsaturated fatty acids. Dietary fats, which is found in ghee, oils, coconut, nuts, milk, cheese, meat, poultry and fish provides structure to cells and cushions membranes to help prevent damage. Oils and fats are also essential for absorbing fat-soluble vitamins including vitamin A, D, E &K.

Fats are essential:

  • To lubricate the joints
  • To help organs to produce hormones
  • To enable the body to absorb certain vitamins
  • To reduce inflammation
  • To preserve brain health (DHA)

Right proportion of saturated & unsaturated fatty (1:2) acids play major role to remain disease free. Excess intake (i.e. 80gm/day) of fat can lead to obesity, high cholesterol, liver disease, and other health problems.


Water: The adult human body is up to 60% water, and it needs water for many processes. Water contains no calories and it does not provide energy.

Many people recommend consuming 2 litres or 8 glasses, of water per day. Fruits and vegetables also provide water.

 So the requirements will also depend on an individual’s body size, age, environmental factors, activity levels & health status.

Adequate hydration will result in pale yellow urine.


Micronutrients are also essential in small amounts. They include vitamins and minerals. Vitamins and minerals are food components that help support overall health and play important roles in cell metabolism and neurological functions.

Minerals help maintain cardiovascular health and provide structure to the skeleton.

Potassium is an electrolyte. It enables the kidneys, the heart, the muscles, and the nerves to work properly. Fewer intakes can lead to high blood pressure, stroke, and kidney stones & while reducing weight lack of potassium can also leads to Weightloss plateau.

Excessive intake may be harmful to people with kidney disease. 

Sources: Fruits, nuts & vegetables.

Sodium: Sodium is an electrolyte that helps:

  • maintain nerve and muscle function
  • regulate fluid levels in the body

Fewer intakes can lead to hyponatremia. Symptoms include lethargy, confusion, and fatigue.

Excessive intake can lead to high blood pressure, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

 Sources: Table salt

Calcium: The body needs calcium to form bones and teeth. It also supports the nervous system, cardiovascular health, and other functions.

Less intake can cause bones and teeth to weaken. Symptoms of a severe deficiency include muscle spasm, easy fracture, tingling in the fingers and changes in heart rhythm, which can be life-threatening.

Excessive intake can lead to constipation, kidney stones, and reduced absorption of other minerals.

 Sources: Milk & Milk products, green leafy vegetables, beans esp. Soybean.

Phosphorus : Phosphorus is present in all body cells and contributes to the health of the bones and teeth.

Less intake of phosphorus can lead to bone diseases, affect appetite, muscle strength, and coordination. It can also result in anaemia, a higher risk of infection, burning or prickling sensations in the skin, and confusion.

Excessive intake in the diet is unlikely to cause health problems though toxicity is possible from supplements, medications, and phosphorus metabolism problem.

 Source: Milk, Cereals & Leafy vegetables

Magnesium : Magnesium contributes to muscle and nerve function. It helps regulate blood pressure and blood sugar levels, and it enables the body to produce proteins, bone, and DNA.

Less intake of magnesium can eventually lead to weakness, nausea, tiredness, restless legs, sleep conditions, and other symptoms.

Excessive intake can result in digestive and, eventually, heart problems

 Sources: Cereals, fruits, vegetables

Zinc:  Zinc plays a role in the health of body cells, the immune system, wound healing, and the creation of proteins & anti aging nutrient.

Less intake can lead to hair loss, skin sores, changes in taste or smell and diarrhoea, but this is rare.

Excessive intake can lead to digestive problems and headaches.

Sources: Meat, fish & milk

Iron : Iron is crucial for the formation of red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of the body. It also plays a role in forming connective tissue and creating hormones.

Less intake can result in anaemia, including digestive issues, fatigue, weakness, difficulty in thinking & poor concentration.

Excessive intake can lead to digestive problems, and very high levels can be fatal.

Sources: Organ Meat, leafy Vegetables, Rongi/Lobia.

Manganese : The body uses manganese to produce energy, it plays a role in blood clotting, and it supports the immune system.

Less intake can result in weak bones in children, skin rashes in men, and mood changes in women.

Excessive intake can lead to tremors, muscle spasms, and other symptoms, but only with very high amounts.

 Sources: Cereals & Leafy vegetables.

Copper : Copper helps the body make energy and produce connective tissues and blood vessels.

Less intake can lead to tiredness, patches of light skin, high cholesterol, and connective tissue disorders.

Excessive intake can result in liver damage, abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhoea. Too much copper also reduces the absorption of zinc.

 Sources: Organ meat, leafy vegetables & cereals.

Selenium : Selenium is made up of over 24 selenoprotein, and it plays a crucial role in reproductive and thyroid health. As an antioxidant, it can also prevent cell damage.

Lesser intake can cause garlic breath, diarrhoea, muscular degeneration, Cardiomyopathy, irritability, skin rashes, brittle hair or nails, and other symptoms.

Excess can result in heart disease, infertility in men, and arthritis.

 Sources: Sea food & Organ Meat.

Vitamins aid in energy production, wound healing, bone formation, immunity, and eye and skin health. People need small amounts of various vitamins. Some of these, such as vitamin C, are also antioxidants. This means they help protect cells from damage by removing toxic molecules, known as free radicals, from the body.

Vitamins can be:

Water-soluble: The eight B vitamins and vitamin C

Fat-soluble: Vitamins A, D, E, and K

Water soluble vitamins

People need to consume water-soluble vitamins regularly because the body removes them more quickly, and it cannot store them easily.


B-1 (thiamin)


B-2 (riboflavin)


B-3 (niacin)


B-5 (pantothenic acid)


B-6 (pyridoxamine, pyridoxal)


B-7 (biotin)


B-9 (folic acid, folate)


B-12 (cobalamins)


Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)


Effect of too little

Beriberi, Wet: Fast heart rate, shortness of breath, leg swelling Dry: Numbness, confusion, trouble moving the legs, pain, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome


Hormonal problems, skin disorders, swelling in the mouth and throat


Pellagra, including skin changes, red tongue, digestive and neurological symptoms


Numbness and burning in hands and feet, fatigue, stomach pain


Anaemia, itchy rash, skin changes, swollen tongue


Hair loss, rashes around the eyes and other body openings, conjunctivitis


Weakness, fatigue, difficulty focusing, heart palpitations, shortness of breath


Anaemia, fatigue, constipation, weight loss, neurological changes


Scurvy, including fatigue, skin rash, gum inflammation, poor wound healing

Effect of too much

Unclear, as the body excretes it in the urine.


Unclear, as the body excretes it in the urine.


Facial flushing, burning, itching, headaches, rashes, and dizzinessv




May increase cancer risk


No adverse effects reported


Nausea, diarrhoea, stomach cramps


Anaemia, fatigue, constipation, weight loss, neurological changes


Scurvy, including fatigue, skin rash, gum inflammation, poor wound healing

Fat-soluble vitamins

The fat soluble vitamins are represented by vitamin A, D, E and K.The body absorbs fat-soluble vitamins through the intestines with the help of fats (lipids). The body can store them and does not remove them quickly. People who follow a low-fat diet may not be able to absorb enough of these vitamins. If too many build up, problems can arise.


Vitamin A (retinoids)


Vitamin D


Vitamin E


Vitamin K


Effect of too little

Night blindness


Poor bone formation and weak bones


Peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, reduced immune response


Bleeding and haemorrhaging in severe cases

Effect of too much

Pressure on the brain, nausea, dizziness, skin irritation, joint and bone pain, orange pigmented skin colour


Anorexia, weight loss, changes in heart rhythm, damage to cardiovascular system and kidneys


May reduce the ability of blood to clot


No adverse effects but it may interact with blood thinners and other drugs

Role of a Nutritionist /Dietician in Bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery is currently the only known method that offers both considerable and long-term weight loss. A nutritionist is an integral part of the interdisciplinary care provided in the bariatric setting. The role of the nutritionist extends throughout the continuum of care in bariatric surgery, including the provision of pre-operative ,  postoperative nutritional assessment of the patient.  The Dietician is to estimate the amount of macronutrients consumed, construct a balanced diet, and advise the patient on needed behavioural changes.

Bariatric dieticians work primarily as part of bariatric programs that offer weight loss surgery for patients with morbid obesity for long term. They work with patients to help them get ready for their weight loss surgery by modifying the patient’s diet and lifestyle approach.

The goals of nutritional management in the early period following bariatric surgery patients is-

  • to promote intake of sufficient energy
  •  to provide nutrients to allow fast recovery
  •  to preserve lean tissue and gain more muscle mass
  •  to ensure that the patients does not consume foods that cause dumping syndrome, reflux or early satiety, while also limiting calorie intake.

We at CKOSMIC provide medical nutrition therapy to help individuals manage chronic conditions like diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, kidney diseases, PCOD etc and promote wellness. Our nutritionist evaluates and assesses your diet and lifestyle. Once we have a realistic picture of your health, our nutritionist will prescribe a food plan than can seamlessly fit into your routine.

E-Diets: To cater the busy and stressful urban lifestyle, we have specialised programmes that makes wellness an attainable goal. You do not need to visit us at CKOSMIC to avail our expertise. Through our E-Diets initiative you can get in touch with our nutritionist on email, specify all your needs and submit all the necessary information. A personalised diet plan will be then e-mailed to you as per your requirements.

Bariatric surgery is an effective method of weight loss in obese patients, but is not the end of treatment. On-going careful nutrition is also of significance in ensuring patients both keep their weight low, whilst also consuming the necessary nutrients. There is an old saying “True beauty comes from within”. Good nutrition not only replenishes you body but also beautifies your outer self. Our nails, hair, skin tells us how healthy we are and is the sign of how healthy our diet is.

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    Thapar Hospital and Research Institute

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